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Django项目

1.Django环境配置

文章目录

提前安装

# 安装django
pip install django==2.2
# 安装redis
pip install django-redis
# 安装mysql
pip install mysqlclient
# 创建项目
django-admin startproject yingshop

开发环境和正式环境的settings配置

# 在manage.py文件中修改如下配置,具体使用哪个配置文件,就注释掉另外一个
# 正式环境配置文件
# os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'yingshop.settings')
# 开发环境配置文件
os.environ.setdefault('DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE', 'yingshop.devsettings')

下面的配置都是在devsettings.py里面进行添加或修改,只是开发前的配置,后续开发还会进行修改

数据库mysql配置

DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'yingshop',
        'PORT': 3306,
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'USER': 'root',
        'PASSWORD': 'root'
    }
}

模板及静态文件配置

# 模板文件配置
TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'templates')], # 就改了这里
        'APP_DIRS': True,
        'OPTIONS': {
            'context_processors': [
                'django.template.context_processors.debug',
                'django.template.context_processors.request',
                'django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth',
                'django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages',
            ],
        },
    },
]

# 静态文件配置
STATIC_URL = '/static/'
STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static")
]

时区配置

LANGUAGE_CODE = 'en-us'
TIME_ZONE = 'Asia/Shanghai'
USE_I18N = True
USE_L10N = True
USE_TZ = False

日志配置

# 日志
LOGGING = {
    'version': 1,
    'disable_existing_loggers': False,  # 是否禁用已经存在的日志器
    'formatters': {  # 日志信息显示的格式
        'verbose': {
            'format': '%(levelname)s %(asctime)s %(module)s %(lineno)d %(message)s'
        },
        'simple': {
            'format': '%(levelname)s %(module)s %(lineno)d %(message)s'
        },
    },
    'filters': {  # 对日志进行过滤
        'require_debug_true': {  # django在debug模式下才输出日志
            '()': 'django.utils.log.RequireDebugTrue',
        },
    },
    'handlers': {  # 日志处理方法
        'console': {  # 向终端中输出日志
            'level': 'INFO',
            'filters': ['require_debug_true'],
            'class': 'logging.StreamHandler',
            'formatter': 'simple'
        },
        'file': {  # 向文件中输出日志
            'level': 'INFO',
            'class': 'logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler',
            'filename': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'logs/yingshop.log'),  # 日志文件的位置
            'maxBytes': 300 * 1024 * 1024,
            'backupCount': 10,
            'formatter': 'verbose'
        },
    },
    'loggers': {  # 日志器
        'django': {  # 定义了一个名为django的日志器
            'handlers': ['console', 'file'],  # 可以同时向终端与文件中输出日志
            'propagate': True,  # 是否继续传递日志信息
            'level': 'INFO',  # 日志器接收的最低日志级别
        },
    }
}

缓存redis配置

# Redis缓存
CACHES = {
    # 默认
    "default": {
        "BACKEND": "django_redis.cache.RedisCache",
        "LOCATION": "redis://127.0.0.1:6379/0",
        "OPTIONS": {
            "CLIENT_CLASS": "django_redis.client.DefaultClient",
        }
    },
    # session
    "session": {
        "BACKEND": "django_redis.cache.RedisCache",
        "LOCATION": "redis://127.0.0.1:6379/1",
        "OPTIONS": {
            "CLIENT_CLASS": "django_redis.client.DefaultClient",
        }
    },
}
SESSION_ENGINE = "django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache"
SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS = "session"

整体配置如下

"""
Django settings for yingshop project.

Generated by 'django-admin startproject' using Django 2.2.

For more information on this file, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/topics/settings/

For the full list of settings and their values, see
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/ref/settings/
"""

import os

# Build paths inside the project like this: os.path.join(BASE_DIR, ...)
BASE_DIR = os.path.dirname(os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__)))

# Quick-start development settings - unsuitable for production
# See https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/howto/deployment/checklist/

# SECURITY WARNING: keep the secret key used in production secret!
SECRET_KEY = 'u0*g4=c@os0b$@brcn2c6r6=ai0f=w5nv4=g05on4he-1aewoj'

# SECURITY WARNING: don't run with debug turned on in production!
DEBUG = True

ALLOWED_HOSTS = []

# Application definition

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'django.contrib.admin',
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
]

MIDDLEWARE = [
    'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
]

ROOT_URLCONF = 'yingshop.urls'

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': 'django.template.backends.django.DjangoTemplates',
        'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'templates')],
        'APP_DIRS': True,
        'OPTIONS': {
            'context_processors': [
                'django.template.context_processors.debug',
                'django.template.context_processors.request',
                'django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth',
                'django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages',
            ],
        },
    },
]

WSGI_APPLICATION = 'yingshop.wsgi.application'

# Database
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/ref/settings/#databases

# DATABASES = {
#     'default': {
#         'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
#         'NAME': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'db.sqlite3'),
#     }
# }
DATABASES = {
    'default': {
        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
        'NAME': 'yingshop',
        'PORT': 3306,
        'HOST': '127.0.0.1',
        'USER': 'root',
        'PASSWORD': 'root'
    }
}

# Password validation
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/ref/settings/#auth-password-validators

AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS = [
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.UserAttributeSimilarityValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.MinimumLengthValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.CommonPasswordValidator',
    },
    {
        'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.NumericPasswordValidator',
    },
]

# Internationalization
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/topics/i18n/

LANGUAGE_CODE = 'en-us'

TIME_ZONE = 'Asia/Shanghai'

USE_I18N = True

USE_L10N = True

USE_TZ = False

# Static files (CSS, JavaScript, Images)
# https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/2.2/howto/static-files/

STATIC_URL = '/static/'
STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static")
]

# Redis缓存
CACHES = {
    # 默认
    "default": {
        "BACKEND": "django_redis.cache.RedisCache",
        "LOCATION": "redis://127.0.0.1:6379/0",
        "OPTIONS": {
            "CLIENT_CLASS": "django_redis.client.DefaultClient",
        }
    },
    # session
    "session": {
        "BACKEND": "django_redis.cache.RedisCache",
        "LOCATION": "redis://127.0.0.1:6379/1",
        "OPTIONS": {
            "CLIENT_CLASS": "django_redis.client.DefaultClient",
        }
    },
}
SESSION_ENGINE = "django.contrib.sessions.backends.cache"
SESSION_CACHE_ALIAS = "session"

# 日志
LOGGING = {
    'version': 1,
    'disable_existing_loggers': False,  # 是否禁用已经存在的日志器
    'formatters': {  # 日志信息显示的格式
        'verbose': {
            'format': '%(levelname)s %(asctime)s %(module)s %(lineno)d %(message)s'
        },
        'simple': {
            'format': '%(levelname)s %(module)s %(lineno)d %(message)s'
        },
    },
    'filters': {  # 对日志进行过滤
        'require_debug_true': {  # django在debug模式下才输出日志
            '()': 'django.utils.log.RequireDebugTrue',
        },
    },
    'handlers': {  # 日志处理方法
        'console': {  # 向终端中输出日志
            'level': 'INFO',
            'filters': ['require_debug_true'],
            'class': 'logging.StreamHandler',
            'formatter': 'simple'
        },
        'file': {  # 向文件中输出日志
            'level': 'INFO',
            'class': 'logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler',
            'filename': os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'logs/yingshop.log'),  # 日志文件的位置
            'maxBytes': 300 * 1024 * 1024,
            'backupCount': 10,
            'formatter': 'verbose'
        },
    },
    'loggers': {  # 日志器
        'django': {  # 定义了一个名为django的日志器
            'handlers': ['console', 'file'],  # 可以同时向终端与文件中输出日志
            'propagate': True,  # 是否继续传递日志信息
            'level': 'INFO',  # 日志器接收的最低日志级别
        },
    }
}